Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals (PDF) Cell. From the Summary: “Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures…. [C[irculating SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ and CD4+= T cells were identified in ~70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. … Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2−reactive CD4+ T cells in ~40-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.” Sounds hopeful. Note: Peer-reviewed, accepted for publication. Not a pre-print. See also South China Morning Post.
As Florida re-opens, COVID-19 data chief gets sidelined and researchers cry foul Florida Today. “But researchers who have relied on unobstructed access to underlying raw data said they interpret Jones’ removal as a clear indication of government censorship of science. ‘We would not accept this lack of transparency for any other natural disaster, so why are we willing to accept it here?’ said Jennifer Larsen, a researcher at the University of Central Florida’s LabX.”
What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters? [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations] Wellcome Open Research. From the abstract: “We found many examples of SARS-CoV-2 clusters linked to a wide range of . Few reports came from schools, many from households, and an increasing number were reported in hospitals and elderly care settings across Europe… However, in part due to the limits in surveillance capacities in many settings, the gathering of information such as cluster sizes and attack rates is limited in several ways: inherent recall bias, biased media reporting and missing data.”
Estimating the overdispersion in COVID-19 transmission using outbreak sizes outside China [version 1; peer review: 1 approved] Wellcome Open Research. From the abstract: “Our model suggested a high degree of individual-level variation in the transmission of COVID-19…. Our finding of a highly-overdispersed offspring distribution highlights a potential benefit to focusing intervention efforts on superspreading. As most infected individuals do not contribute to the expansion of an epidemic, the effective reproduction number could be drastically reduced by preventing relatively rare superspreading events.”
We made measurements for three variations: combining one layer 600 TPI cotton with two layers of silk, two layers of chiffon, and one layer of flannel. The results are also compared with the performance of a standard N95 mask. All three hybrid combinations performed well, exceeding 80% efficiency in the 90% in the >300 nm range. These cloth hybrids are slightly inferior to the N95 mask above 300 nm, but superior for particles smaller than 300 nm.
Fit is also critical, but I view that as an artiffact of treating fabric masks as disposable, as opposed to articles of clothing. It’s good to see so much ingenious experimentation going on here.
Trump says he’s taking hydroxychloroquine, the drug he touted as coronavirus treatment, despite FDA warnings USA Today. Big if true. Big if false. Notably, Trump is combining hydroxychloroquine with zinc, both of unknown dosages, and using the combination as a preventative, a scenario that the observational studies have not, to my knowledge tested, and which also seems to represent a rough consensus for appropriate use in the NC commentariat among students of hydroxychloroquine (we are not doctors!) The FDA recommendation is irrelevant given a physician’s prescription for off-label use. We have controlled studies coming, we don’t have them yet.